Back Up, Restore, Migrate¶
There are a number of reasons why you might want to backup and restore a SecureDrop installation. Maintaining periodic backups is generally a good practice to guard against data loss. In the event of hardware failure on the SecureDrop servers, having a recent backup will enable you to redeploy the system without changing Onion URLs, recreating journalist accounts, or losing previous submissions from sources.
Only the Application Server is backed up and restored, including historical submissions and both Source Interface and Journalist Interface URLs. The Monitor Server needs to be configured from scratch in the event of a hardware migration.
Minimizing Disk Use¶
Since the backup and restore operations both involve transferring all of your SecureDrop’s stored submissions over Tor, the process can take a long time. To save time and improve reliability for the transfers, take a moment to clean up older submissions in the Journalist Interface. As a general practice, you should encourage Journalists to delete regularly unneeded submissions from the Journalist Interface.
Although it varies, the average throughput of an onion service is about 150 kB/s, or roughly 4 hours for 2GB. Plan your backup and restore accordingly.
You can use the following command to determine the volume of submissions
currently on the Application Server: log in over SSH and run
sudo du -sh /var/lib/securedrop/store.
Submissions are deleted asynchronously and one at a time, so
if you delete a lot of submissions through the Journalist
Interface, it may take a while for all of the submissions
to actually be deleted. SecureDrop uses
securely erase files, which takes significantly more time
than normal file deletion. You can monitor the progress of
queued deletion jobs by logging in to the Application
Server over SSH and running:
sudo journalctl -u securedrop_rqworker
If you find you cannot perform a backup or restore due to this constraint, and have already deleted old submissions from the Journalist Interface, contact us through the SecureDrop Support Portal.
Open a Terminal on the Admin Workstation and
cd to your clone
of the SecureDrop git repository (usually
Ensure you have a tagged SecureDrop release checked out, version 0.4 or
later. (You can run
git describe --exact-match to verify that you have the
right source checked out.)
The backups are stored in the Admin Workstation persistent volume. Verify that you have enough space to store the backups before running the backup command.
You can use the
du command described earlier to get the
approximate size of the backup file (since the majority of the backup
archive is the stored submissions), and Tails’ Disks utility to
see how much free space you have on your persistent volume.
First, verify that your Admin Workstation is able to run Ansible and connect to the SecureDrop servers.
ssh app uptime
If this command fails (usually with an error like “SSH Error: data could not be sent to the remote host. Make sure this host can be reached over ssh”), you need to debug your connectivity before proceeding further. Make sure:
- Ansible is installed
- the Admin Workstation is connected to the Internet
- Tor starts successfully
- The appropriate onion service configuration files are present in
./securedrop-admin tailsconfigcommand completes successfully
If Ansible is not installed, or
./securedrop-admin tailsconfig fails, see
Configure the Admin Workstation Post-Install and Create Backups for detailed setup instructions.
Create the Backup¶
When you are ready to begin the backup, run
The backup action will display itemized progress as the backup is created. Run time will vary depending on connectivity and the number of submissions saved on the Application Server.
When the backup action is complete, the backup will be stored as a compressed
install_files/ansible-base. The filename will begin
followed by a timestamp of when the backup was initiated, and end with
.tar.gz. You can find the full path to the backup archive in the output
of backup action.
The backup file contains sensitive information! It should only be stored on the Admin Workstation, or on a dedicated encrypted backup USB.
When dealing with larger backups, the
securedrop-admin backup command may
fail with a
MemoryError at this stage of the operation: “Fetch the backup
tarball back to the Admin Workstation”.
If this happens, a backup was successfully generated, but it is still
on the server. Run this command from your
directory to copy the backup your Admin Workstation:
rsync -av --progress --partial app:$(ssh app ls -1rt /tmp/sd-backup* | tail -1) install_files/ansible-base/
If the transfer fails or is interrupted, you can simply run this command again to resume it.
Note that this method will only work if you have first run the
securedrop-admin backup command, and the backup has successfully progressed
at least until the “Fetch the backup tarball” stage.
The process for restoring a backup is very similar to the process of creating
one. As before, boot the Admin Workstation and
cd to the
SecureDrop repository. Ensure that you have SecureDrop 0.4 or later
The restore command expects to find a
.tar.gz backup archive in
install_files/ansible-base under the SecureDrop repository root directory.
If you are using the same Admin Workstation to do a restore from a previous
backup, it should already be there because it was placed there by the backup
command. Otherwise, you should copy the backup archive that you wish to restore to
The backup strategy used for SecureDrop versions prior to 0.3.7
created encrypted archives with the extension
You can safely remove those files once you’ve created the
backup archive described in this guide.
Restoring From a Backup File¶
This documentation applies to a SecureDrop instance using v2 onion services. If your instance uses v3 onion services, you will need to follow additional steps depending on your specific restore scenario.
To perform a restore, you must already have a backup archive. Provide its filename in the following command:
./securedrop-admin restore sd-backup-2017-07-22--01-06-25.tar.gz
Make sure to replace
sd-backup-2017-07-22--01-06-25.tar.gz with the filename
for your backup archive. The backup archives are located in
Once the restore is done, the Application Server will use the original Source Interface and Journalist Interface Onion URLs. You will need to update the corresponding files on the Admin Workstation:
Once ssh access to the servers has been established (or if using ssh over local network), Onion URLs for the Source Interface and Journalist Interfaces can be fetched using the installer:
./securedrop-admin tailsconfig to update the Admin Workstation
to use the restored Onion URLs again. See Configure the Admin Workstation Post-Install and Create Backups
for detailed instructions.
Moving a SecureDrop installation to new hardware consists of
- Backing up the existing installation;
- Installing the same version of SecureDrop on the new hardware;
- Restoring the backup to the new installation.